PUBLIC EDUCATION AND
EMPOWERMENT RESOURCE SERVICE
A CALIFORNIA PUBLIC BENEFIT CORPORATION
The principal office of the corporation for the transaction of its business
is located in Alameda County, California.
SECTION 2. CHANGE OF ADDRESS
The county of the corporation's principal office can be changed only by amendment
of these bylaws and not otherwise. The board of directors may, however, change
the principal office from one location to another within the named county
by noting the changed address and effective date below, and such changes of
address shall not be deemed an amendment of these bylaws.
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SECTION 3. OTHER OFFICES
The corporation may also have offices at such other places, within or without
the State of California, where it is qualified to do business, as its business
may require and as the board of directors may, from time to time, designate.
SECTION 1. OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSES
The primary objectives and purposes of this corporation shall be:
(1) to educate and inspire the public to reduce prejudice and economic inequalities
and to foster a sense of global community based on love and cooperation. Working
largely, but not exclusively, through inspirational, educational Internet
websites and email, PEERS provides exercises, inspirational stories,
and community building ideas designed to reduce prejudice and inspire
people to work together towards greater equality and respect in all aspects of life.
(2) to educate the public both about current news developments and about the forces
underlying the political, economic, and social structures that shape our nation
and world. Working largely, but not exclusively through Internet websites
and email, PEERS provides fact-filled news articles and summaries comprised
of important information which impacts the lives of people in our nation and
world. All information provided is taken from the most reliable sources available,
and most can be verified with minimal research. PEERS offers this information
free of charge as an opportunity for people to educate themselves and others,
and to inspire the public to strengthen democracy and work together for the
good of all people in our nation and world.
(3) to manage free email subscription lists which provide educational
information and inspiration to those who subscribe. Anyone can subscribe to these lists through the websites under PEERS management. The content of the information
sent to subscribers is based on the objectives and purposes stated in (1)
(4) to provide speakers for events and media programs and to organize occasional
events focused on education and inspiration which are compatible with the objectives and purposes stated
in (1) and (2).
SECTION 1. NUMBER
The corporation shall have between three and seven directors, and collectively they shall be known as the board of directors. The numbers may be changed by amendment of this bylaw, or by repeal of this bylaw and adoption of a new bylaw, as provided in these bylaws.
SECTION 2. POWERS
Subject to the provisions of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation
law and any limitations in the articles of incorporation and bylaws relating
to action required or permitted to be taken or approved by the members, if
any, of this corporation, the activities and affairs of this corporation shall
be conducted and all corporate powers shall be exercised by or under the direction
of the board of directors.
SECTION 3. DUTIES
It shall be the duty of the directors to:
(a) Perform any and all duties imposed on them collectively or individually
by law, by the articles of incorporation of this corporation, or by these
(b) Appoint and remove, employ and discharge, and, except as otherwise provided
in these bylaws, prescribe the duties and fix the compensation, if any, of
all officers, agents, and employees of the corporation;
(c) Supervise all officers, agents, and employees of the corporation to assure
that their duties are performed properly;
(d) Meet at such times and places as required by these bylaws;
(e) Register their addresses with the secretary of the corporation and notices
of meetings mailed, emailed, or telegraphed to them at such addresses shall
be valid notices thereof.
SECTION 4. TERMS OF OFFICE
Each director shall hold office until the next annual meeting for election
of the board of directors as specified in these bylaws, and until his or her
successor is elected and qualifies.
SECTION 5. COMPENSATION
Directors shall serve without compensation for their duties as members of the board of directors. No payments are authorized unless the board of directors should amend this section in accordance with all other provisions in the bylaws. Directors shall be allowed reasonable advancement or reimbursement of expenses incurred in the performance of their regular duties as specified in Section 3 of this Article. Directors may not be compensated for rendering services to the corporation
in any capacity other than director unless such other compensation is reasonable
and is allowable under the provisions of Section 6 of this Article. Any payments
to directors shall be approved in advance in accordance with this corporation's
conflict of interest policy, as set forth in Article 9 of these bylaws.
SECTION 6. RESTRICTION REGARDING INTERESTED DIRECTORS
Notwithstanding any other provision of these bylaws, not more than forty-nine
percent (49%) of the persons serving on the board may be interested persons.
For purposes of this Section, "interested persons" means either:
(a) Any person currently being compensated by the corporation for services
rendered it within the previous twelve (12) months, whether as a full- or
part-time officer or other employee, independent contractor, or otherwise,
excluding any reasonable compensation paid to a director as director; or
(b) Any brother, sister, ancestor, descendant, spouse, brother-in-law, sister-in-law,
son-in-law, daughter-in-law, mother-in-law, or father-in-law of any such person.
SECTION 7. PLACE OF MEETINGS
Meetings shall be held at the principal office of the corporation unless otherwise
provided by the board or at such place within or without the State of California
which has been designated from time to time by resolution of the board of
directors. In the absence of such designation, any meeting not held at the
principal office of the corporation shall be valid only if held on the written
consent of all directors given either before or after the meeting and filed
with the secretary of the corporation or after all board members have been
given written notice of the meeting as hereinafter provided for special meetings
of the board.
Any meeting, regular or special, may be held by conference telephone, electronic
video screen communication, or other communications equipment. Participation
in a meeting through use of conference telephone constitutes presence in person
at that meeting so long as all directors participating in the meeting are
able to hear one another. Participation in a meeting through use of electronic
video screen communication or other communications equipment (other than conference
telephone) constitutes presence in person at that meeting if all of the following
a) Each director participating in the meeting can communicate with all of
the other directors concurrently;
b) Each director is provided the means of participating in all matters before
the board, including, without limitation, the capacity to propose, or to interpose
an objection to, a specific action to be taken by the corporation; and
c) The corporation adopts and implements some means of verifying 1) that all
persons participating in the meeting are directors of the corporation or are
otherwise entitled to participate in the meeting, and 2) that all actions
of, or votes by, the board are taken and cast only by directors and not by
persons who are not directors.
SECTION 8. REGULAR AND ANNUAL MEETINGS
Regular meetings of directors shall be held in the last two weeks of January or any time in February on a date agreed upon by all directors who can attend, unless all should agree to hold the annual meeting outside of this timeframe.
If this corporation makes no provision for members, then, at the annual meeting, directors shall be elected by the board of directors in accordance with this section. Cumulative voting by directors for the election
of directors shall not be permitted. The candidates receiving the highest
number of votes up to the number of directors to be elected shall be elected.
Each director shall cast one vote, with voting conducted by written ballot
or by voice count. If all directors present agree to a voice vote, then voting
will be conducted by a voice count. If one or more directors request a written
ballot, the voting must be conducted by written ballot.
SECTION 9. SPECIAL MEETINGS
Special meetings of the board of directors may be called by the chairperson
of the board, the president, the vice president, the secretary, or by any
two directors, and such meetings shall be held at the place, within or without
the State of California, designated by the person or persons calling the meeting,
and in the absence of such designation, at the principal office of the corporation.
SECTION 10. NOTICE OF MEETINGS
Regular meetings of the board may be held without notice. Special meetings
of the board shall be held upon four (4) days' notice by first-class mail
or forty-eight (48) hours' notice delivered personally or by telephone, email,
or telegraph. If sent by mail or telegraph, the notice shall be deemed to
be delivered on its deposit in the mails or on its delivery to the telegraph
company. If sent by email, notice shall be deemed to be delivered only after
an email response is received confirming the receipt of said notice. Such
notices shall be addressed to each director at his or her address as shown
on the books of the corporation. Notice of the time and place of holding an
adjourned meeting need not be given to absent directors if the time and place
of the adjourned meeting are fixed at the meeting adjourned and if such adjourned
meeting is held no more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original
meeting. Notice shall be given of any adjourned regular or special meeting
to directors absent from the original meeting if the adjourned meeting is
held more than twenty-four (24) hours from the time of the original meeting.
SECTION 11. CONTENTS OF NOTICE
Notice of meetings not herein dispensed with shall specify the place, day,
and hour of the meeting. The purpose of any board meeting need not be specified
in the notice.
SECTION 12. WAIVER OF NOTICE AND CONSENT TO HOLDING MEETINGS
The transactions of any meeting of the board, however called and noticed or
wherever held, are as valid as though the meeting had been duly held after
proper call and notice, provided a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is present
and provided that either before or after the meeting each director not present
signs a waiver of notice, a consent to holding the meeting, or an approval
of the minutes thereof. All such waivers, consents, or approvals shall be
filed with the corporate records or made a part of the minutes of the meeting.
SECTION 13. QUORUM FOR MEETINGS
A quorum shall consist of fifty (50) percent or more of the total directors.
Except as otherwise provided in these bylaws or in the articles of incorporation
of this corporation, or by law, no business shall be considered by the board
at any meeting at which a quorum, as hereinafter defined, is not present,
and the only motion which the chair shall entertain at such meeting is a motion
to adjourn. However, a majority of the directors present at such meeting may
adjourn from time to time until the time fixed for the next regular meeting
of the board.
When a meeting is adjourned for lack of a quorum, it shall not be necessary
to give any notice of the time and place of the adjourned meeting or of the
business to be transacted at such meeting, other than by announcement at the
meeting at which the adjournment is taken, except as provided in Section 10
of this Article.
The directors present at a duly called and held meeting at which a quorum
is initially present may continue to do business notwithstanding the loss
of a quorum at the meeting due to a withdrawal of directors from the meeting,
provided that any action thereafter taken must be approved by at least a majority
of the required quorum for such meeting or such greater percentage as may
be required by law, or the articles of incorporation or bylaws of this corporation.
SECTION 14. MAJORITY ACTION AS BOARD ACTION
Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present
at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present is the act of the board
of directors, unless the articles of incorporation or bylaws of this corporation,
or provisions of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law,
particularly those provisions relating to appointment of committees (Section
5212), approval of contracts or transactions in which a director has a material
financial interest (Section 5233), and indemnification of directors (Section
5238e), require a greater percentage or different voting rules for approval
of a matter by the board.
SECTION 15. CONDUCT OF MEETINGS
Meetings of the board of directors shall be presided over by the chairperson
of the board, or, if no such person has been so designated or, in his or her
absence, the chief executive officer of the corporation or, in his or her
absence, by the secretary of the corporation or, in the absence of each of
these persons, by a chairperson chosen by a majority of the directors present
at the meeting. The secretary of the corporation shall act as secretary of
all meetings of the board, provided that, in his or her absence, or in his
or her fulfilling the duties of chairperson, the presiding officer shall appoint
another person to act as secretary of the meeting.
Whenever there arises a disagreement as to how board meetings should be governed,
Robert's Rules of Order shall be used, though such rules may be revised from
time to time, insofar as such rules are not inconsistent with or in conflict
with these bylaws, with the articles of incorporation of this corporation,
or with provisions of law. Decisions will be made by consensus. However,
if consensus cannot be reached, a simple majority will constitute approval.
SECTION 16. ACTION BY UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT WITHOUT MEETING
required or permitted to be taken by the board of directors under any provision
of law may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the board shall individually
or collectively consent in writing to such action. Email communications are
deemed acceptable for all written consent, provided that these emails are printed and entered into the corporate records book. For the purposes of this Section
only, "all members of the board" shall not include any "interested
director" as defined in Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public
Benefit Corporation Law. Such written consent or consents shall be filed with
the minutes of the proceedings of the board. Such action by written consent
shall have the same force and effect as the unanimous vote of the directors.
Any certificate or other document filed under any provision of law which relates
to action so taken shall state that the action was taken by unanimous written
consent of the board of directors without a meeting and that the bylaws of
this corporation authorize the directors to so act, and such statement shall
be prima facie evidence of such authority.
SECTION 17. VACANCIES
Vacancies on the board of directors shall exist (1) on the death, resignation,
or removal of any director, and (2) whenever the number of authorized directors
The board of directors may declare vacant the office of a director who has
been declared of unsound mind by a final order of court, or convicted of a
felony, or been found by a final order or judgment of any court to have breached
any duty under Section 5230 and following of the California Nonprofit Public
Benefit Corporation Law.
If this corporation has any members, then, if the corporation has fewer than
fifty (50) members, directors may be removed without cause by a majority of
all members, or, if the corporation has fifty (50) or more members, by vote
of a majority of the votes represented at a membership meeting at which a
quorum is present.
If this corporation has no members, directors may be removed without cause
by a majority of the directors then in office.
Any director may resign effective upon giving written notice to the chairperson
of the board, the president, the secretary, or the board of directors, unless
the notice specifies a later time for the effectiveness of such resignation.
No director may resign if the corporation would then be left without a duly
elected director or directors in charge of its affairs, except upon notice
to the attorney general.
Vacancies on the board may be filled by approval of the board or, if the number
of directors then in office is less than a quorum, by (1) the unanimous written
consent of the directors then in office, (2) the affirmative vote of a majority
of the directors then in office at a meeting held pursuant to notice or waivers
of notice complying with this Article of these bylaws, or (3) a sole remaining
director. If this corporation has members, however, vacancies created by the
removal of a director may be filled only by the approval of the members. The
members, if any, of this corporation may elect a director at any time to fill
any vacancy not filled by the directors.
A person elected to fill a vacancy as provided by this Section shall hold
office until the next annual election of the board of directors or until his
or her death, resignation, or removal from office.
SECTION 18. NONLIABILITY OF DIRECTORS
The directors shall not be personally liable for the debts, liabilities, or
other obligations of the corporation.
SECTION 19. INDEMNIFICATION BY CORPORATION OF DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES,
AND OTHER AGENTS
To the extent that a person who is, or was, a director, officer, employee,
or other agent of this corporation has been successful on the merits in defense
of any civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative proceeding brought
to procure a judgment against such person by reason of the fact that he or
she is, or was, an agent of the corporation, or has been successful in defense
of any claim, issue, or matter, therein, such person shall be indemnified
against expenses actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection
with such proceeding.
If such person either settles any such claim or sustains a judgment against
him or her, then indemnification against expenses, judgments, fines, settlements,
and other amounts reasonably incurred in connection with such proceedings
shall be provided by this corporation but only to the extent allowed by, and
in accordance with the requirements of, Section 5238 of the California Nonprofit
Public Benefit Corporation Law.
SECTION 20. INSURANCE FOR CORPORATE AGENTS
The board of directors may adopt a resolution authorizing the purchase and
maintenance of insurance on behalf of any agent of the corporation (including
a director, officer, employee, or other agent of the corporation) against
any liability other than for violating provisions of law relating to self-dealing
(Section 5233 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law)
asserted against or incurred by the agent in such capacity or arising out
of the agent's status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the
power to indemnify the agent against such liability under the provisions of
Section 5238 of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law.
SECTION 1. NUMBER OF OFFICERS
of the corporation shall be a president or chief executive officer, a secretary,
and a chief financial officer who shall be designated the treasurer. The corporation
may also have, as determined by the board of directors, a chairperson of the
board, one or more vice presidents, assistant secretaries, assistant treasurers,
or other officers. Any number of offices may be held by the same person except
that neither the secretary nor the treasurer may serve as the president or
chairperson of the board.
SECTION 2. QUALIFICATION, ELECTION, AND TERM OF OFFICE
Any person may serve as an officer of this corporation. Officers shall be
elected by the board of directors, at any time, and each officer shall hold
office until he or she resigns, is removed, or is otherwise disqualified to
serve, or until his or her successor shall be elected and qualified, whichever
SECTION 3. SUBORDINATE OFFICERS
The board of directors may appoint such other officers or agents as it may
deem desirable, and such officers shall serve such terms, have such authority,
and perform such duties as may be prescribed from time to time by the board
SECTION 4. REMOVAL AND RESIGNATION
Any officer may be removed, either with or without cause, by the board of
directors, at any time. Any officer may resign at any time by giving written
notice to the board of directors or to the president or secretary of the corporation.
Any such resignation shall take effect at the date of receipt of such notice
or at any later date specified therein, and, unless otherwise specified therein,
the acceptance of such resignation shall not be necessary to make it effective.
The above provisions of this Section shall be superseded by any conflicting
terms of a contract which has been approved or ratified by the board of directors
relating to the employment of any officer of the corporation.
SECTION 5. VACANCIES
Any vacancy caused by the death, resignation, removal, disqualification, or
otherwise, of any officer shall be filled by the board of directors. In the
event of a vacancy in any office other than that of president, such vacancy
may be filled temporarily by appointment by the president until such time
as the board shall fill the vacancy. Vacancies occurring in offices of officers
appointed at the discretion of the board may or may not be filled as the board
SECTION 6. DUTIES OF PRESIDENT
The president shall be the chief executive officer of the corporation and
shall, subject to the control of the board of directors, supervise and control
the affairs of the corporation and the activities of the officers. He or she
shall perform all duties incident to his or her office and such other duties
as may be required by law, by the articles of incorporation of this corporation,
or by these bylaws, or which may be prescribed from time to time by the board
of directors. Unless another person is specifically appointed as chairperson
of the board of directors, he or she shall preside at all meetings of the
board of directors. If applicable, the president shall preside at all meetings
of the members. Except as otherwise expressly provided by law, by the articles
of incorporation, or by these bylaws, he or she shall, in the name of the
corporation, execute such deeds, mortgages, bonds, contracts, checks, or other
instruments which may from time to time be authorized by the board of directors.
SECTION 7. DUTIES OF VICE PRESIDENT
In the absence of the president, or in the event of his or her inability or
refusal to act, the vice president shall perform all the duties of the president,
and when so acting shall have all the powers of, and be subject to all the
restrictions on, the president. The vice president shall have other powers
and perform such other duties as may be prescribed by law, by the articles
of incorporation, or by these bylaws, or as may be prescribed by the board
SECTION 8. DUTIES OF SECRETARY
The secretary shall:
Certify and keep at the principal office of the corporation the original,
or a copy of these bylaws as amended or otherwise altered to date.
Keep at the principal office of the corporation or at such other place as
the board may determine, a book of minutes of all meetings of the directors,
and, if applicable, meetings of committees of directors and of members, recording
therein the time and place of holding, whether regular or special, how called,
how notice thereof was given, the names of those present or represented at
the meeting, and the proceedings thereof.
See that all notices are duly given in accordance with the provisions of these
bylaws or as required by law.
Be custodian of the records and of the seal of the corporation and see that
the seal is affixed to all duly executed documents, the execution of which
on behalf of the corporation under its seal is authorized by law or these
Keep at the principal office of the corporation a membership book containing
the name and address of each and any member, and, in the case where any membership
has been terminated, the secretary shall record such fact in the membership
book together with the date on which such membership ceased.
Exhibit at all reasonable times to any director of the corporation, or to
his or her agent or attorney, on request therefor, the bylaws, the membership
book, and the minutes of the proceedings of the directors of the corporation.
In general, perform all duties incident to the office of secretary and such
other duties as may be required by law, by the articles of incorporation of
this corporation, or by these bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her
from time to time by the board of directors.
SECTION 9. DUTIES OF TREASURER
Subject to the provisions of these bylaws relating to the "Execution
of Instruments, Deposits, and Funds," the treasurer shall:
Have charge and custody of, and be responsible for, all funds and securities
of the corporation, and deposit all such funds in the name of the corporation
in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as shall be selected
by the board of directors.
Receive, and give receipt for, monies due and payable to the corporation from
any source whatsoever.
Disburse, or cause to be disbursed, the funds of the corporation as may be
directed by the board of directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements.
Keep and maintain adequate and correct accounts of the corporation's properties
and business transactions, including accounts of its assets, liabilities,
receipts, disbursements, gains and losses.
Exhibit at all reasonable times the books of account and financial records
to any director of the corporation, or to his or her agent or attorney, on
Render to the president and directors, whenever requested, an account of any
or all of his or her transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition
of the corporation.
Prepare, or cause to be prepared, and certify, or cause to be certified, the
financial statements to be included in any required reports.
In general, perform all duties incident to the office of treasurer and such
other duties as may be required by law, by the articles of incorporation of
the corporation, or by these bylaws, or which may be assigned to him or her
from time to time by the board of directors.
SECTION 10. COMPENSATION
The salaries of the officers, if any, shall be fixed from time to time by
resolution of the board of directors, and no officer shall be prevented from
receiving such salary by reason of the fact that he or she is also a director
of the corporation, provided, however, that such compensation paid a director
for serving as an officer of this corporation shall only be allowed if permitted
under the provisions of Article 3, Section 6, of these bylaws. In all cases,
any salaries received by officers of this corporation shall be reasonable
and given in return for services actually rendered for the corporation which
relate to the performance of the charitable or public purposes of this corporation.
All officer salaries shall be approved in advance in accordance with this
corporation's conflict of interest policy, as set forth in Article 9 of these
SECTION 1. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD
The board of directors may, by a majority vote of directors, designate two
(2) or more of its members (who may also be serving as officers of this corporation)
to constitute an executive committee of the board and delegate to such committee
any of the powers and authority of the board in the management of the business
and affairs of the corporation, except with respect to:
(a) The approval of any action which, under law or the provisions of these
bylaws, requires the approval of the members or of a majority of all of the
(b) The filling of vacancies on the board or on any committee that has the
authority of the board.
(c) The fixing of compensation of the directors for serving on the board or
on any committee.
(d) The amendment or repeal of bylaws or the adoption of new bylaws.
(e) The amendment or repeal or any resolution of the board which by its express
terms is not so amendable or repealable.
(f) The appointment of committees of the board or the members thereof.
(g) The expenditure of corporate funds to support a nominee for director after
there are more people nominated for director than can be elected.
(h) The approval of any transaction to which this corporation is a party and
in which one or more of the directors has a material financial interest, except
as expressly provided in Section 5233(d)(3) of the California Nonprofit Public
Benefit Corporation Law.
By a majority vote of its members then in office, the board may at any time
revoke or modify any or all of the authority so delegated, increase or decrease
but not below two (2) the number of its members, and fill vacancies therein
from the members of the board. The committee shall keep regular minutes of
its proceedings, cause them to be filed with the corporate records, and report
the same to the board from time to time as the board may require.
SECTION 2. OTHER COMMITTEES
The corporation shall have such other committees as may from time to time
be designated by resolution of the board of directors. Such other committees
may consist of persons who are not also members of the board. These additional
committees shall act in an advisory capacity only to the board and shall be
clearly titled as "advisory" committees.
SECTION 3. MEETINGS AND ACTION OF COMMITTEES
Meetings and action of committees shall be governed by, noticed, held, and
taken in accordance with the provisions of these bylaws concerning meetings
of the board of directors, with such changes in the context of such bylaw
provisions as are necessary to substitute the committee and its members for
the board of directors and its members, except that the time for regular meetings
of committees may be fixed by resolution of the board of directors or by the
committee. The time for special meetings of committees may also be fixed by
the board of directors. The board of directors may also adopt rules and regulations
pertaining to the conduct of meetings of committees to the extent that such
rules and regulations are not inconsistent with the provisions of these bylaws.
EXECUTION OF INSTRUMENTS, DEPOSITS, AND FUNDS
SECTION 1. EXECUTION OF INSTRUMENTS
The board of directors, except as otherwise provided in these bylaws, may
by resolution authorize any officer or agent of the corporation to enter into
any contract or execute and deliver any instrument in the name of and on behalf
of the corporation, and such authority may be general or confined to specific
instances. Unless so authorized, no officer, agent, or employee shall have
any power or authority to bind the corporation by any contract or engagement
or to pledge its credit or to render it liable monetarily for any purpose
or in any amount.
SECTION 2. CHECKS AND NOTES
Except as otherwise specifically determined by resolution of the board of directors, or as otherwise required by law, checks, drafts, promissory notes, orders for the payment of money, and other evidence of indebtedness of the corporation shall be signed by either the treasurer or the president of the corporation.
SECTION 3. DEPOSITS
All funds of the corporation shall be deposited from time to time to the credit
of the corporation in such banks, trust companies, or other depositories as
the board of directors may select.
SECTION 4. GIFTS
The board of directors may accept on behalf of the corporation any contribution,
gift, bequest, or devise for the charitable or public purposes of this corporation.
CORPORATE RECORDS, REPORTS, AND SEAL
SECTION 1. MAINTENANCE OF CORPORATE RECORDS
The corporation shall keep at its principal office in the State of California:
(a) Minutes of all meetings of directors, committees of the board and, if
this corporation has members, of all meetings of members, indicating the time
and place of holding such meetings, whether regular or special, how called,
the notice given, and the names of those present and the proceedings thereof;
(b) Adequate and correct books and records of account, including accounts
of its properties and business transactions and accounts of its assets, liabilities,
receipts, disbursements, gains, and losses;
(c) A record of its members, if any, indicating their names and addresses
and, if applicable, the class of membership held by each member and the termination
date of any membership;
(d) A copy of the corporation's articles of incorporation and bylaws as amended
to date, which shall be open to inspection by the members, if any, of the
corporation at all reasonable times during office hours.
SECTION 2. CORPORATE SEAL
The board of directors may adopt, use, and at will alter, a corporate seal.
Such seal shall be kept at the principal office of the corporation. Failure
to affix the seal to corporate instruments, however, shall not affect the
validity of any such instrument.
SECTION 3. DIRECTORS' INSPECTION RIGHTS
Every director shall have the absolute right at any reasonable time to inspect
and copy all books, records, and documents of every kind and to inspect the
physical properties of the corporation.
SECTION 4. MEMBERS' INSPECTION RIGHTS
If this corporation has any members, then each and every member shall have
the following inspection rights, for a purpose reasonably related to such
person's interest as a member:
(a) To inspect and copy the record of all members' names, addresses, and voting
rights, at reasonable times, upon five (5) business days' prior written demand
on the corporation, which demand shall state the purpose for which the inspection
rights are requested.
(b) To obtain from the secretary of the corporation, upon written demand and
payment of a reasonable charge, an alphabetized list of the names, addresses,
and voting rights of those members entitled to vote for the election of directors
as of the most recent record date for which the list has been compiled or
as of the date specified by the member subsequent to the date of demand. The
demand shall state the purpose for which the list is requested. The membership
list shall be made available on or before the later of ten (10) business days
after the demand is received or after the date specified therein as of which
the list is to be compiled.
(c) To inspect at any reasonable time the books, records, or minutes of proceedings
of the members or of the board or committees of the board, upon written demand
on the corporation by the member, for a purpose reasonably related to such
person's interests as a member.
SECTION 5. RIGHT TO COPY AND MAKE EXTRACTS
Any inspection under the provisions of this Article may be made in person
or by agent or attorney and the right to inspection includes the right to
copy and make extracts.
SECTION 6. ANNUAL REPORT
The board shall cause an annual report to be furnished not later than one
hundred and twenty (120) days after the close of the corporation's fiscal
year to all directors of the corporation and, if this corporation has members,
to any member who requests it in writing, which report shall contain the following
information in appropriate detail:
(a) The assets and liabilities, including the trust funds, of the corporation
as of the end of the fiscal year;
(b) The principal changes in assets and liabilities, including trust funds,
during the fiscal year;
(c) The revenue or receipts of the corporation, both unrestricted and restricted
to particular purposes, for the fiscal year;
(d) The expenses or disbursements of the corporation, for both general and
restricted purposes, during the fiscal year;
(e) Any information required by Section 7 of this Article.
The annual report shall be accompanied by any report thereon of independent
accountants, or, if there is no such report, the certificate of an authorized
officer of the corporation that such statements were prepared without audit
from the books and records of the corporation.
If this corporation has members, then, if this corporation receives Twenty-Five
Thousand Dollars ($25,000), or more, in gross revenues or receipts during
the fiscal year, this corporation shall automatically send the above annual
report to all members, in such manner, at such time, and with such contents,
including an accompanying report from independent accountants or certification
of a corporate officer, as specified by the above provisions of this Section
relating to the annual report.
SECTION 7. ANNUAL STATEMENT OF SPECIFIC TRANSACTIONS TO MEMBERS
shall mail, email, or deliver to all directors and any and all members a statement
within one hundred and twenty (120) days after the close of its fiscal year
which briefly describes the amount and circumstances of any indemnification
or transaction of the following kind:
Any transaction in which the corporation, or its parent or its subsidiary,
was a party, and in which either of the following had a direct or indirect
material financial interest:
(a) Any director or officer of the corporation, or its parent or its subsidiary
(a mere common directorship shall not be considered a material financial interest);
(b) Any holder of more than ten percent (10%) of the voting power of the corporation,
its parent, or its subsidiary.
The above statement need only be provided with respect to a transaction during
the previous fiscal year involving more than Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000)
or which was one of a number of transactions with the same persons involving,
in the aggregate, more than Fifty Thousand Dollars ($50,000).
Similarly, the statement need only be provided with respect to indemnifications
or advances aggregating more than Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000) paid during
the previous fiscal year to any director or officer, except that no such statement
need be made if such indemnification was approved by the members pursuant
to Section 5238(e)(2) of the California Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation
Any statement required by this Section shall briefly describe the names of
the interested persons involved in such transactions, stating each person's
relationship to the corporation, the nature of such person's interest in the
transaction, and, where practical, the amount of such interest, provided that
in the case of a transaction with a partnership of which such person is a
partner, only the interest of the partnership need be stated.
If this corporation has any members and provides all members with an annual
report according to the provisions of Section 6 of this Article, then such
annual report shall include the information required by this Section.
SECTION 1. FISCAL YEAR OF THE CORPORATION
The fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January
and end on the last day of December in each year.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST AND COMPENSATION APPROVAL POLICIES
SECTION 1. PURPOSE OF CONFLICT OF INTEREST POLICY
The purpose of this conflict of interest policy is to protect this tax-exempt
corporation's interest when it is contemplating entering into a transaction
or arrangement that might benefit the private interest of an officer or director
of the corporation or any "disqualified person" as defined in Section
4958(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code and as amplified by Section 53.4958-3
of the IRS Regulations and which might result in a possible "excess benefit
transaction" as defined in Section 4958(c)(1)(A) of the Internal Revenue
Code and as amplified by Section 53.4958 of the IRS Regulations. This policy
is intended to supplement but not replace any applicable state and federal
laws governing conflict of interest applicable to nonprofit and charitable
SECTION 2. DEFINITIONS
(a) Interested Person.
Any director, principal officer, member of a committee with governing board
delegated powers, or any other person who is a "disqualified person"
as defined in Section 4958(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code and as amplified
by Section 53.4958-3 of the IRS Regulations, who has a direct or indirect
financial interest, as defined below, is an interested person.
(b) Financial Interest.
A person has a financial interest if the person has, directly or indirectly,
through business, investment, or family:
(1) an ownership or investment interest in any entity with which the corporation
has a transaction or arrangement,
(2) a compensation arrangement with the corporation or with any entity or
individual with which the corporation has a transaction or arrangement, or
(3) a potential ownership or investment interest in, or compensation arrangement
with, any entity or individual with which the corporation is negotiating a
transaction or arrangement.
Compensation includes direct and indirect remuneration as well as gifts or
favors that are not insubstantial.
A financial interest is not necessarily a conflict of interest. Under Section
3, paragraph B, a person who has a financial interest may have a conflict
of interest only if the appropriate governing board or committee decides that
a conflict of interest exists.
SECTION 3. CONFLICT OF INTEREST AVOIDANCE PRODEDURES
(a) Duty to Disclose.
In connection with any actual or possible conflict of interest, an interested
person must disclose the existence of the financial interest and be given
the opportunity to disclose all material facts to the directors and members
of committees with governing board delegated powers considering the proposed
transaction or arrangement.
(b) Determining Whether a Conflict of Interest Exists.
After disclosure of the financial interest and all material facts, and after
any discussion with the interested person, he/she shall leave the governing
board or committee meeting while the determination of a conflict of interest
is discussed and voted upon. The remaining board or committee members shall
decide if a conflict of interest exists.
(c) Procedures for Addressing the Conflict of Interest.
An interested person may make a presentation at the governing board or committee
meeting, but after the presentation, he/she shall leave the meeting during
the discussion of, and the vote on, the transaction or arrangement involving
the possible conflict of interest.
The chairperson of the governing board or committee shall, if appropriate,
appoint a disinterested person or committee to investigate alternatives to
the proposed transaction or arrangement.
After exercising due diligence, the governing board or committee shall determine
whether the corporation can obtain with reasonable efforts a more advantageous
transaction or arrangement from a person or entity that would not give rise
to a conflict of interest.
If a more advantageous transaction or arrangement is not reasonably possible
under circumstances not producing a conflict of interest, the governing board
or committee shall determine by a majority vote of the disinterested directors
whether the transaction or arrangement is in the corporation's best interest,
for its own benefit, and whether it is fair and reasonable. In conformity
with the above determination, it shall make its decision as to whether to
enter into the transaction or arrangement.
(d) Violations of the Conflicts of Interest Policy.
If the governing board or committee has reasonable cause to believe a member
has failed to disclose actual or possible conflicts of interest, it shall
inform the member of the basis for such belief and afford the member an opportunity
to explain the alleged failure to disclose.
If, after hearing the member's response and after making further investigation
as warranted by the circumstances, the governing board or committee determines
the member has failed to disclose an actual or possible conflict of interest,
it shall take appropriate disciplinary and corrective action.
SECTION 4. RECORDS OF BOARD AND BOARD COMMITTEE PROCEEDINGS
The minutes of meetings of the governing board and all committees with board
delegated powers shall contain:
(a) The names of the persons who disclosed or otherwise were found to have
a financial interest in connection with an actual or possible conflict of
interest, the nature of the financial interest, any action taken to determine
whether a conflict of interest was present, and the governing board's or committee's
decision as to whether a conflict of interest in fact existed.
(b) The names of the persons who were present for discussions and votes relating
to the transaction or arrangement, the content of the discussion, including
any alternatives to the proposed transaction or arrangement, and a record
of any votes taken in connection with the proceedings.
SECTION 5. COMPENSATION APPROVAL POLICIES
A voting member of the governing board who receives compensation, directly
or indirectly, from the corporation for services is precluded from voting
on matters pertaining to that member's compensation.
A voting member of any committee whose jurisdiction includes compensation
matters and who receives compensation, directly or indirectly, from the corporation
for services is precluded from voting on matters pertaining to that member's
No voting member of the governing board or any committee whose jurisdiction
includes compensation matters and who receives compensation, directly or indirectly,
from the corporation, either individually or collectively, is prohibited from
providing information to any committee regarding compensation.
When approving compensation for directors, officers and employees, contractors,
and any other compensation contract or arrangement, in addition to complying
with the conflict of interest requirements and policies contained in the preceding
and following sections of this article as well as the preceding paragraphs
of this section of this article, the board or a duly constituted compensation
committee of the board shall also comply with the following additional requirements
(a) the terms of compensation shall be approved by the board or compensation
committee prior to the first payment of compensation.
(b) all members of the board or compensation committee who approve compensation
arrangements must not have a conflict of interest with respect to the compensation
arrangement as specified in IRS Regulation Section 53.4958-6(c)(iii), which
generally requires that each board member or committee member approving a
compensation arrangement between this organization and a "disqualified
person" (as defined in Section 4958(f)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code
and as amplified by Section 53.4958-3 of the IRS Regulations):
1. is not the person who is the subject of compensation arrangement, or a
family member of such person;
2. is not in an employment relationship subject to the direction or control
of the person who is the subject of compensation arrangement
3. does not receive compensation or other payments subject to approval by
the person who is the subject of compensation arrangement
4. has no material financial interest affected by the compensation arrangement;
5. does not approve a transaction providing economic benefits to the person
who is the subject of the compensation arrangement, who in turn has approved
or will approve a transaction providing benefits to the board or committee
(c) the board or compensation committee shall obtain and rely upon appropriate
data as to comparability prior to approving the terms of compensation. Appropriate
data may include the following:
1. compensation levels paid by similarly situated organizations, both taxable
and tax-exempt, for functionally comparable positions. "Similarly situated"
organizations are those of a similar size and purpose and with similar resources
2. the availability of similar services in the geographic area of this organization
3. current compensation surveys compiled by independent firms
4. actual written offers from similar institutions competing for the services
of the person who is the subject of the compensation arrangement.
As allowed by IRS Regulation 4958-6, if this organization has average annual
gross receipts (including contributions) for its three prior tax years of
less than $1 million, the board or compensation committee will have obtained
and relied upon appropriate data as to comparability if it obtains and relies
upon data on compensation paid by three comparable organizations in the same
or similar communities for similar services.
(d) the terms of compensation and the basis for approving them shall be recorded
in written minutes of the meeting of the board or compensation committee that
approved the compensation. Such documentation shall include:
1. the terms of the compensation arrangement and the date it was approved
2. the members of the board or compensation committee who were present during
debate on the transaction, those who voted on it, and the votes cast by each
board or committee member
3. the comparability data obtained and relied upon and how the data was obtained.
4. If the board or compensation committee determines that reasonable compensation
for a specific position in this organization or for providing services under
any other compensation arrangement with this organization is higher or lower
than the range of comparability data obtained, the board or committee shall
record in the minutes of the meeting the basis for its determination.
5. If the board or committee makes adjustments to comparability data due to
geographic area or other specific conditions, these adjustments and the reasons
for them shall be recorded in the minutes of the board or committee meeting.
6. any actions taken with respect to determining if a board or committee member
had a conflict of interest with respect to the compensation arrangement, and
if so, actions taken to make sure the member with the conflict of interest
did not affect or participate in the approval of the transaction (for example,
a notation in the records that after a finding of conflict of interest by
a member, the member with the conflict of interest was asked to, and did,
leave the meeting prior to a discussion of the compensation arrangement and
a taking of the votes to approve the arrangement).
7. The minutes of board or committee meetings at which compensation arrangements
are approved must be prepared before the later of the date of the next board
or committee meeting or 60 days after the final actions of the board or committee
are taken with respect to the approval of the compensation arrangements. The
minutes must be reviewed and approved by the board and committee as reasonable,
accurate, and complete within a reasonable period thereafter, normally prior
to or at the next board or committee meeting following final action on the
arrangement by the board or committee.
SECTION 6. ANNUAL STATEMENTS
Each director, principal officer, and member of a committee with governing
board delegated powers shall annually sign a statement which affirms such
(a) has received a copy of the conflicts of interest policy,
(b) has read and understands the policy,
(c) has agreed to comply with the policy, and
(d) understands the corporation is charitable and in order to maintain its
federal tax exemption it must engage primarily in activities which accomplish
one or more of its tax-exempt purposes.
SECTION 7. PERIODIC REVIEWS
To ensure the corporation operates in a manner consistent with charitable
purposes and does not engage in activities that could jeopardize its tax-exempt
status, periodic reviews shall be conducted. The periodic reviews shall, at
a minimum, include the following subjects:
(a) Whether compensation arrangements and benefits are reasonable, based
on competent survey information, and the result of arm's-length bargaining.
(b) Whether partnerships, joint ventures, and arrangements with management
organizations conform to the corporation's written policies, are properly
recorded, reflect reasonable investment or payments for goods and services,
further charitable purposes, and do not result in inurement, impermissible
private benefit, or in an excess benefit transaction.
SECTION 8. USE OF OUTSIDE EXPERTS
When conducting the periodic reviews as provided for in Section 7, the corporation
may, but need not, use outside advisors. If outside experts are used, their
use shall not relieve the governing board of its responsibility for ensuring
periodic reviews are conducted.
AMENDMENT OF BYLAWS
SECTION 1. AMENDMENT
Subject to any provision of law applicable to the amendment of bylaws of public
benefit nonprofit corporations, these bylaws, or any of them, may be altered,
amended, or repealed and new bylaws adopted as follows:
(a) Subject to the power of members, if any, to change or repeal these bylaws
under Section 5150 of the Corporations Code, by approval of the board of directors
unless the bylaw amendment would materially and adversely affect the rights
of members, if any, as to voting or transfer, provided, however, if this corporation
has admitted any members, then a bylaw specifying or changing the fixed number
of directors of the corporation, the maximum or minimum number of directors,
or changing from a fixed to variable board or vice versa, may not be adopted,
amended, or repealed except as provided in subparagraph (b) of this Section;
(b) By approval of the members, if any, of this corporation.
AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES
SECTION 1. AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES BEFORE ADMISSION OF MEMBERS
Before any members have been admitted to the corporation, any amendment of
the articles of incorporation may be adopted by approval of the board of directors.
SECTION 2. AMENDMENT OF ARTICLES AFTER ADMISSION OF MEMBERS
After members, if any, have been admitted to the corporation, amendment of
the articles of incorporation may be adopted by the approval of the board
of directors and by the approval of the members of this corporation.
SECTION 3. CERTAIN AMENDMENTS
Notwithstanding the above sections of this Article, this corporation shall
not amend its articles of incorporation to alter any statement which appears
in the original articles of incorporation of the names and addresses of the
first directors of this corporation, nor the name and address of its initial
agent, except to correct an error in such statement or to delete such statement
after the corporation has filed a "Statement by a Domestic Nonprofit
Corporation" pursuant to Section 6210 of the California Nonprofit Corporation
PROHIBITION AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS
SECTION 1. PROHIBITION AGAINST SHARING CORPORATE PROFITS AND ASSETS
No member, director, officer, employee, or other person connected with this
corporation, or any private individual, shall receive at any time any of the
net earnings or pecuniary profit from the operations of the corporation, provided,
however, that this provision shall not prevent payment to any such person
of reasonable compensation for services performed for the corporation in effecting
any of its public or charitable purposes, provided that such compensation
is otherwise permitted by these bylaws and is fixed by resolution of the board
of directors; and no such person or persons shall be entitled to share in
the distribution of, and shall not receive, any of the corporate assets on
dissolution of the corporation. All members, if any, of the corporation shall
be deemed to have expressly consented and agreed that on such dissolution
or winding up of the affairs of the corporation, whether voluntarily or involuntarily,
the assets of the corporation, after all debts have been satisfied, shall
be distributed as required by the articles of incorporation of this corporation
and not otherwise.
SECTION 1. DETERMINATION OF MEMBERS
If this corporation makes no provision for members, then, pursuant to Section
5310(b) of the Nonprofit Public Benefit Corporation Law of the State of California,
any action which would otherwise, under law or the provisions of the articles
of incorporation or bylaws of this corporation, require approval by a majority
of all members or approval by the members, shall only require the approval
of the board of directors.
WRITTEN CONSENT OF DIRECTORS ADOPTING BYLAWS
We, the undersigned, are all of the persons named as the initial directors
in the articles of incorporation of Public Education and Empowerment Resource
Service (PEERS), a California nonprofit corporation, and, pursuant to the
authority granted to the directors by these bylaws to take action by unanimous
written consent without a meeting, consent to, and hereby do, adopt the foregoing
bylaws, consisting of twenty-five (25) pages, as the bylaws of this corporation.
Dated: January 29, 2006
Frederick Burks, Director
D. Alexander Floum , Director
Jay Lee, Director
Declan Banfield, Director
This is to certify that the foregoing is a true and correct copy of the bylaws
of the corporation named in the title thereto and that such bylaws were duly
adopted by the board of directors of said corporation on the date set forth
Dated: January 29, 2006
Jay Lee, Secretary